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All your questions about kids + face masks, answered

We asked doctors and epidemiologists the biggest questions parents have about masks at school—including what face masks are most effective, and how to get kids to wear them.

best masks for school kids

School will be different in many ways this fall, no matter where you live or what your local district's plans are. But regardless of the uncertainty that still surrounds schedules, social distancing and hybrid learning, one thing, at least, is clear: If your child's school or preschool opens its doors, everyone who steps through them will need to wear a mask, from teachers to staff to students.

So which masks are safest and most effective for kids—and how do you convince kids to wear them? We asked doctors and epidemiologists the biggest questions parents have about masks at school.


What kind of face mask is best for children to wear at school? 

There's a surprising number of face mask options out there, but parents want to know which type of face mask is most effective and safe for kids in a school setting—cloth masks? Surgical masks? Face shields? Neck gaiters? Or just any kind of mask they'd actually tolerate wearing?

As it turns out, every expert we asked was in agreement on this point. "A cloth mask is the best option for most children," says Sara B. Johnson, Ph.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Dr. Melissa Hawkins, an epidemiologist, mom of four and Director of the Public Health Scholars Program in the Department of Health Studies at American University, agrees: "For a school setting, I recommend cotton masks with elastic ties because they are highly effective, comfortable and washable."

In addition to being reusable and washable, cloth face masks with ties are easier to adjust to fit than one-size-fits-all surgical masks. Cloth face masks are also less irritating to the skin than medical-style masks made of more fibrous woven material, and are less likely to slip down or lose elasticity than a neck gaiter. Neck gaiters leave the actual act of covering the mouth and nose up to the responsibility of the wearer, which makes them less than ideal for kids.

"A facial covering does not need to be a surgical mask for adults or children, but it should not be an N-95 respirator mask, which are essential for those actively treating Covid patients and are in critically short supply right now," notes Hawkins. Dr. Daniel Berliner, a physician for virtual health platform PlushCare, agrees: "While more sophisticated masks (like N-95 masks) do the best job, any face covering that is comfortable and that will be worn is much better than no mask."

Bottom line: "The most effective mask would be the one the child finds comfortable," as Dr. Eudene Harry, Medical Director for Oasis Wellness and Rejuvenation Center, puts it. And for most kids, the most comfortable mask is a child-sized cloth face covering with elastic ties.

Reminder: Children under the age of 2 should not wear face masks, as recommended by the CDC and health care providers.

Are clear plastic face shields effective and safe for kids to wear?

Cloth masks are actually preferable to plastic face shields (worn on their own) for the purposes of preventing viral spread. "A face shield protects the wearer but is not as good at keeping infectious droplets in, since the sides and bottom are open," Johnson says.

According to Harry, "the CDC doesn't recommend face shields instead of face masks because they aren't known to offer similar protection from aerosolized particles." If, however, your child is unable to wear a face mask and you opt to have them wear a shield, "be sure that it goes around the side of the face and below the chin," she advises.

Hawkins neatly breaks down the pros and cons of plastic face shields for kids this way: "Face shields can be more comfortable than masks, especially if your child wears glasses, which easily fog with masks. Shields cover the entire face and make it harder for a child to touch nose, mouth, and eyes, and they are easy to clean and disinfect after each use. The drawbacks: First, they provide good protection to the child wearing it, but less so for other people because the face shield is away from the face and thus respiratory droplets can easily escape and spread. Second, because they are less effective, the CDC currently recommends masks be worn along with a face shield."

Plastic face shields may be hard to wear for younger children, Johnson notes, although a shield can be worn over a cloth face mask. If children are "developmentally ready" to wear a face shield over a mask, she says, "that's an option, but for most children, a cloth mask is fine."

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What can parents or caregivers do to help kids feel comfortable wearing a mask?

Experts agree that children are incredibly adaptable—in fact, as Dr. Harry observes, "children sometimes adapt more readily than adults to change." While wearing a mask may feel uncomfortable or strange at first, the good news is that kids will adjust, especially when they see that all their friends and teachers at school are in the same boat.

In the meantime, here are some ways parents can ease kids into wearing masks at school.

Practice: "We've found that children get better at wearing masks with practice, so practice over the summer with your children until they are used to wearing the mask," Johnson suggests. "That includes how to put it on with clean hands, how to remove it and how to wash or sanitize hands after."

Meet them where they are: "Children are children, so demonstrating on their favorite stuffed animals or allowing them to decorate their own mask can help to introduce it in a way that they can understand," suggests Harry.

Let them choose: "You can involve your child in picking out the mask, or consider personalizing it with permanent markers. Kids are more likely to wear a mask if they like the design," Johnson says.

Make sure your child's mask actually fits them comfortably: "Because we don't want children to touch their faces to adjust the mask, it's important to try to find one that's the right size for your child," Johnson says. "A too-big mask is likely to slip and require a lot of adjustment."

Encourage their sense of responsibility for others: "Parents can say, 'Masks are for superheroes and helpers, and that's what we are when we wear our masks. When we wear a mask, we help keep the people around us safe and help keep our germs away from other people,'" Johnson suggests.

Put mask-wearing into a healthy context they understand: Most kids know that washing hands, using tissues (instead of sleeves) and sneezing and coughing into our elbows are all everyday actions we should take to help keep germs from spreading—even when we're not sick. Wearing a mask is in the same category: just one more way to keep ourselves and others healthy.

"Explain to your child that it is important to wear a mask to help protect other people and keep themselves safe," Harry suggests. "You may have discussed with your child the importance of handwashing to keep hands clean before eating, after using the bathroom, and so on. You can just reinforce that this is just another way to do that."

Make it memorable: Early education experts know that repetition and rhyme are effective in introducing new concepts to young children. Your family can adopt its own rhyme, reminder or affirmation to encourage kids to wear their masks—Dr. Hawkins suggested a few:

  • Be a friend, wear a mask.
  • Your first task is to wear your mask.
  • My mask protects you and your mask protects me. Masks help us keep each other healthy.
  • Heroes wear masks.
  • Caring is sharing, but not germs. Wear a mask.

Model mask-wearing yourself, and point out masks in your community: "Wear your mask whenever you're within 6 feet of people who don't live in your household," Johnson says. "Point out to your child people who are wearing masks and reinforce the idea that everyone is helping."

Teach them how to wear a mask properly: Show them that they should always wash hands before and after putting on their mask, and help them make sure their nose, mouth and chin are fully covered. "Remind them to always avoid touching the mask when it's on their face and to take it off from behind their ears and not from the face part," Hawkins notes.

Wash masks frequently—both for health + comfort: No one wants to wear a smelly, stained mask, no matter how important it is.

Are face masks safe for kids?

Unfortunately, there are a lot of misconceptions out there about mask-wearing, and even well-meaning people can be misled by confusing or contradictory claims. So if you're hearing from relatives or friends or neighbors that face masks are unsafe or unnecessary for children, be empathetic, while arming yourself with the facts.

Here's what experts want parents to know about the safety and efficacy of masks for children.

Masks are safe—they do not "smother" kids, inhibit their intake of oxygen, or cause excess intake of carbon dioxide. "Masks do not effectively serve as a barrier to transmission of gases like they do in stopping particulate matter," Berliner points out. "So while masks will greatly reduce movement of virus particles, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases will flow freely. In other words, kids wearing masks at school will be able to adequately breathe air in and out and not have significant changes in their normal, unmasked levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide."

Johnson agrees: "There are a lot of misconceptions about wearing a cloth face covering. There's generally no reason to worry about reduced airflow, or increased CO2 intake, or increased risk for infection related to a cloth face mask, they allow plenty of air exchange."

And one more time for those in the back (or for those with friends or relatives that really need convincing): "Wearing a face mask has not been shown to increase CO2 levels or decrease oxygen levels in individuals with normal lung function. Keep in mind that hospital personnel wear masks for many hours a day and are okay," Harry points out. "If a person has a lung disease and wears the more tightly woven N-95 mask, then there is a possibility of CO2 increasing. These individuals should speak with their physicians. Cloth masks allow for easy exchange of oxygen and CO2."

Masks are effective. "Mask wearing is especially important to reduce asymptomatic spread, a larger driver of the infection rates across the country," notes Hawkins. "We know that universal mask wearing will significantly reduce viral transmission rates in communities and nationally."

Masks are among the most affordable, easy-to-use weapons we have against the spread of coronavirus. "Physical distancing, frequent hand-washing and consistency in mask wearing are tried and true (no cost) prevention approaches that do work," says Hawkins.

Masks will be especially important for preventing viral spread in schools. "Some parents may believe that children do not contribute to the transmission of the coronavirus," Hawkins says, but "when schools open again in the fall, children will be together in groups and the usual respiratory illnesses will circulate as they always do. When children are coughing and sneezing more regularly due to other illnesses (or due to COVID-19), it is likely the virus will be spread easily and readily. This is certainly the case for all other respiratory viruses, including other strains of coronavirus. So, two good reasons to wear a mask—reduce the risk of coronavirus and the risk of the other pesky respiratory illnesses that are commonplace in school settings."

Masks are a sign of care for our communities. "Wearing masks is something new to many kids and parents," Johnson acknowledges. "Like any new skill we teach our children, it can be confusing and scary at first; our job is to help children realize how they're helping. Building empathy and care for others is something that will benefit our kids long after the pandemic.

If these expert assurances from a range of doctors and epidemiologists are not enough to change other people's thinking, remember this, mama: Your main responsibility is your children's health and your own well-being—both physical and mental. Control what you can control, and let go of the rest.

What if my child just really, really hates wearing a mask?

"Just as with any new health habit, wearing a mask will take practice before your child becomes accustomed to it," acknowledges epidemiologist Dr. Melissa Hawkins. But with love and patience, there are many ways parents can help even the most resistant kids adjust to the change. A few effective methods Dr. Hawkins suggests:

Use frequent and positive reinforcement. Praise kids for being helpful heroes by wearing masks, and praise others in their class and their community for doing the same.

Don't make it a big deal. Once all the kids in the class or school are practicing the behavior together, it will become routine for all, Hawkins points out, noting that summer programs with mandatory mask policies have already helped many kids adjust well to masks, because wearing a mask has now become the new social norm.

Help kids understand the why. Talk with children in age-appropriate terms about the importance of mask wearing and explain germs in simple terms, Hawkins suggests. For example, explain that germs can go from our body to someone else's body when we cough, sneeze or breathe too close to someone else. Masks protect our own noses and mouths from germs, but wearing a mask can also protect our friends because it keeps our germs closer to our own bodies.

Explain that masks are the rule right now. Just like wearing shoes to play outside, wearing a seatbelt in the car or wearing a coat when it's cold, there are certain rules we all follow that help us stay safe and healthy.

Model mask wearing to show that it's safe and practice wearing the mask at home. Have your child help you put on your mask. Offer to help your child put on their mask. Suggest your child put the mask on a stuffed animal or doll. Show them pictures of other children wearing masks. Show them pictures of super heroes wearing masks. Just like superheroes, they are helping us all stay healthy.

Validate their feelings + emotions about mask wearing and comfort them. Share when it's been frustrating or hot to wear the mask. Invite them to draw how they feel about it.

Offer some simple choices to help them feel more in control. For example, tell them they decide whether to put the mask on when we leave the house or in the car.

Make mask-wearing playful. Let them choose their own mask color and pattern. A lot of retailers are offering kid-friendly masks now. Let them get creative decorating their masks with stickers, ribbons and so on.

Be consistent in mask wearing to establish good habits and routine.

If your child is extra-resistant to wearing a mask, experts note that there are a number of perfectly understandable reasons why this might be the case. For example, make sure your child's mask fits and is comfortable, especially around the ears. Your child might benefit from "fresh air breaks" where they can remove their mask for a short period away from other children—you might consider discussing this possibility with your child's teacher.

Finally, don't underestimate the hugely important role you and your family play in helping your child adjust to wearing a face mask. As Dr. Berliner points out, making this change "requires guidance from authority figures, especially parents, that masks are safe, good for your health and really important and necessary. And the best way to impart this message to children is to lead by example."

While it may feel natural to make jokes about masks or roll our eyes good-naturedly while putting them on, these actions can be interpreted by young children in a different way than we intend, and we can inadvertently become what Berliner calls a "negative beacon" with regard to wearing masks. If we send the signal to our kids that masks are a pain and an annoyance but oh well, we gotta wear 'em anyway, then of course our kids will notice we're less than enthusiastic.

Each of us can play an important role in reducing the spread of the coronavirus in our communities. Helping our kids adjust to wearing face masks in public and in school is a challenge none of us could have foreseen. But we can do hard things.

You've got this.

<p> Siobhan Adcock is the Experts Editor at Motherly and the author of two novels about motherhood, <a href="https://www.siobhanadcock.com/" target="_blank">The Completionist</a> and <a href="https://www.siobhanadcock.com/the-barter" target="_blank">The Barter</a>. Her writing has also appeared in Romper, Bustle, Ms., McSweeney's, Slate, Salon, The Daily Beast, The Chicago Review of Books and elsewhere. She lives in Brooklyn with her husband and daughter. </p>
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These are only the vitamins I give my children and here's why

It's hard to say who loves these more—my kids or me.

When I became a mama five years ago, I didn't put too much thought into whether my son was getting the right vitamins and minerals. From breastfeeding to steaming and pureeing his first bites of solid food, I was confident I was giving him everything to support his growth and development.

But then the toddler years—and the suddenly picky palate that accompanied them—came along. Between that challenge and two additional children in the mix… well, I knew my oldest son's eating plan was falling short in some vitamin and mineral categories.

I also knew how quickly he was growing, so I wanted to make sure he was getting the nutrients he needed (even on those days when he said "no, thank you" to any veggie I offered).

So when I discovered the new line of children's supplements from Nature's Way®, it felt like a serious weight off my chest. Thanks to supplements that support my children's musculoskeletal growth, their brain function, their immune systems, their eyes and more, I'm taken back to that simpler time when I was so confident my kids' vitamin needs were met.*

It wasn't just the variety of supplements offered by Nature's Way that won me over: As a vegetarian mama, I'm the picky one in the family when it comes to scanning labels and making sure they meet our standards. The trick is that most gummy vitamins are made with gelatin, which is not vegetarian friendly.

But just like the other offerings from Nature's Way that I've already come to know and love, the children's supplement line is held to a high standard. That means there's no high-fructose corn syrup, gelatin or common allergens to be found in the supplements. The best part? My two oldest kids ensure we never miss their daily vitamins—they are so in love with the gummy flavors, which include tropical fruit punch, lemonade and wild berry.


Nature's Way Kids Mulitvitamin


Meanwhile, my pharmacist husband has different criteria when evaluating supplements, especially when it comes to those for our kids. He appreciates the variety of options from Nature's Way, which gives us the ability to rotate the vitamins based on our kids' daily needs. By keeping various children's supplements from Nature's Way on hand, I can customize a regimen to suit my kids' individual requirements.

Of course, high-quality products often come at a higher price point. But (to my immense gratitude!) that isn't the case with Nature's Way, which retails for a competitive value when compared to the other items on the shelf.

Like all mamas, my chief concern is supporting my children's health in any way I can. While I see evidence of their growth every time I pack away clothes they've outgrown, I know there is much more growth that doesn't meet the eye. That's why, for my oldest son, I like stacking the Brain Builder gummy with the Growing Bones & Muscles gummy and the Happy & Healthy Multi. My 3-year-old also enjoys getting her own mix to include the Healthy Eyes gummy. And both of my older kids are quick to request the Tummy Soothe tablet when something isn't sitting right in their stomachs.* And I'll admit it: I've tried it myself and the berry blast flavor really is tasty!

Although my current phase of motherhood may not be as "simple" as it once was, there is so much to appreciate about it—like watching my kids play and sing and create with their incredible imaginations. Along the way, I've eased up on some of my need for control, but it does help to have this range of supplements in my motherhood tool kit. So while I may not be able to convince my son to try kale, having the Nature's Way supplements on hand means I do know he's right on track.*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


This article was sponsored by Nature's Way. Thank you for supporting the brands that support Motherly and mamas.

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Time-saving formula tips our editors swear by

Less time making bottles, more time snuggling.

As a new parent, it can feel like feeding your baby is a full-time job—with a very demanding nightshift. Add in the additional steps it takes to prepare a bottle of formula and, well… we don't blame you if you're eager to save some time when you can. After all, that means more time for snuggling your baby or practicing your own well-deserved self-care.

Here's the upside: Many, many formula-feeding mamas before you have experienced the same thing, and they've developed some excellent tricks that can help you mix up a bottle in record time. Here are the best time-saving formula tips from editors here at Motherly.

1. Use room temperature water

The top suggestion that came up time and time again was to introduce bottles with room temperature water from the beginning. That way, you can make a bottle whenever you need it without worrying about warming up water—which is a total lifesaver when you have to make a bottle on the go or in the middle of the night.

2. Buy online to save shopping time

You'll need a lot of formula throughout the first year and beyond—so finding a brand like Comforts, which offers high-quality infant formula at lower prices, will help you save a substantial amount of money. Not to mention, you can order online or find the formula on shelves during your standard shopping trip—and that'll save you so much time and effort as well.

3. Pre-measure nighttime bottles

The middle of the night is the last time you'll want to spend precious minutes mixing up a bottle. Instead, our editors suggest measuring out the correct amount of powder formula into a bottle and putting the necessary portion of water on your bedside table. That way, all you have to do is roll over and combine the water and formula in the bottle before feeding your baby. Sounds so much better than hiking all the way to the kitchen and back at 3 am, right?

4. Divide serving sizes for outings

Before leaving the house with your baby, divvy up any portions of formula and water that you may need during your outing. Then, when your baby is hungry, just combine the pre-measured water and powder serving in the bottle. Our editors confirm this is much easier than trying to portion out the right amount of water or formula while riding in the car.

5. Memorize the mental math

Soon enough, you'll be able to prepare a bottle in your sleep. But, especially in the beginning or when increasing your baby's serving, the mental math can take a bit of time. If #mombrain makes it tough to commit the measurements to memory, write up a cheat sheet for yourself or anyone else who will prepare your baby's bottle.

6. Warm up chilled formula with water

If you're the savvy kind of mom who prepares and refrigerates bottles for the day in advance, you'll probably want to bring it up to room temperature before serving. Rather than purchase a bottle warmer, our editors say the old-fashioned method works incredibly well: Just plunge the sealed bottle in a bowl of warm water for a few minutes and—voila!—it's ready to serve.



Another great tip? Shop the Comforts line on Comfortsforbaby.com to find premium baby products for a fraction of competitors' prices. Or, follow @comfortsforbaby for more information!

This article was sponsored by The Kroger Co. Thank you for supporting the brands that support Motherly and mamas.

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11 products to help parents survive the 4-month sleep regression 😴

So you—and baby—can start getting more rest.

Ah, the 4-month sleep regression...unlike, say, your baby's first solid food or her first steps, the 4-month sleep regression isn't a milestone that many parents typically look forward to. Whether you're currently in the midst of the madness or just anticipating what might be ahead, odds are you have some questions—and some worries—about this much talked-about sleep (or lack thereof) phase.

But guess what, mama? The news is good! According to experts, sleep regressions aren't really a thing; they're more like transitions. And they're actually a good thing—they mean your baby is growing, changing, developing, + finding new ways to interact with the world around them.

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