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Gluten has been blamed for weight gain, irritability, irregular bowel movements, fatigue, and a host of other symptoms. The charges against gluten are exceeded only by the number of gluten-free products lining our supermarket shelves.

Many of these labels are appearing in the baby aisle as well, a reasonable consequence of the gluten-free movement, given that the symptoms of gluten ingestion overlap nearly perfectly with the behavior of most infants and young children.

But does gluten deserve this reputation? What is it? How does it impact health? And should parents avoid feeding gluten to their children?

What is gluten?

Gluten is so often invoked as an enemy that it sounds scary, but its definition is downright boring. Gluten has taken on all manner of nefarious meanings, but, most simply put, it is just a group of proteins that are found in wheat and other similar grains.

Those proteins are, in fact, desirable because the gluten formation in bread dough is what gives really good loaves their chewy texture. That’s why many recipes call for wheat flour, which has more protein and will lead to a chewier texture than other, lower-protein varieties.

What illnesses are related to gluten?

While gluten is completely harmless to most of the population, it does pose a genuine health risk to two populations. Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which the body reacts to gliadins, one of the two protein types found in gluten. In adults, celiac disease is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.

Many children with celiac disease don’t show these symptoms. Instead, because celiac disease interferes with nutrient absorption, one of the most obvious symptoms of celiac disease in infants and young children is a failure to thrive. In both children and adults with celiac disease, prolonged exposure to gluten can damage the small intestine, which is why patients with celiac disease are prescribed gluten-free diets.

Like celiac disease, a wheat allergy is also an immune response. In medical literature, an allergy refers specifically to the body’s immune response to a substance that is usually considered harmless to humans. In patients who develop wheat allergies, the first exposure triggers the body to develop antibodies, so that upon subsequent exposures, the body will react. Anaphylaxis is the most serious symptom, which is why people with wheat allergies also have gluten-free diets.

People who have gastrointestinal discomfort after consuming gluten, but no other symptoms of celiac disease or wheat allergy, are increasingly being diagnosed with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Unlike celiac disease and wheat allergy, which are related to the immune system, intolerances are related to digestion. Intolerances for certain types of foods can lead to discomfort, but they do not cause long-term organ damage like celiac disease or life-threatening anaphylaxis, like wheat allergies.

Does gluten pass to the baby through breastmilk?

If you spend any time on forums that discuss gluten, you’ll find the oft-repeated but rarely sourced claim that gliadin, one of the proteins in gluten, passes into breastmilk.

Before considering this remarkable claim, let’s step back from the question of gluten for a moment and think about the digestive system.

Let’s say you, sleep-deprived parent, drink a latte. Some parts of that latte, including water, sugar, and caffeine, are immediately absorbed into your bloodstream. But the milk, which includes proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates, aren’t digested until later when they reach the stomach and small intestine.

Proteins are broken down into amino acids, while fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. All of these molecules, as well as the sugars coming from carbohydrates, pass from the small intestine into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, those molecules can travel anywhere in the body, including into breastmilk. But by the time those molecules appear in breastmilk, they look very different from how they started.

Now imagine that you’re eating a piece of bread. You don’t think of that bread as a protein source, but it is. The gluten proteins from that bread will be broken down by your stomach and small intestine into amino acids, which will then pass through your small intestine into the bloodstream. By the time your body recombines those amino acids into the proteins in your breast milk, they won’t be gluten proteins anymore.

The proteins formed in breast milk are similar in structure to gluten proteins, which may lead certain researchers or advocates of gluten-free diets to claim that gluten proteins are, therefore, passing through the digestive system into the breastmilk. Without a complete paradigm shift in the understanding of human digestion by the general populace, it seems unlikely that this misinformation will stop.

Can gluten-containing formula and foods cause celiac disease and wheat allergies?

Even if your child is considered high risk for celiac disease or wheat allergy, there’s no indication that he should not have gluten. In the case of allergies, researchers have found that earlier introduction to potential allergens actually decreases the likelihood that children will develop allergies.

Early introduction of gluten does not appear to have an effect on the development of celiac disease. Researchers behind the TEDDY study, a large longitudinal study of children, found that the timing of gluten introduction to children does not impact the onset of celiac disease. Another study explored the introduction of gluten and breastfeeding and found that neither contributed to celiac disease.

My child is (irritable, inconsolable, contorted) after nursing or eating. Could it be gluten?

Here we get to a really tricky problem, trickier even than studying human digestion or immune responses. You breastfeed your baby. The baby starts screaming. The baby has strange-looking stools. You remember you ate that bread before nursing, and come to think of it, the baby cried the last time he ate cereal…

Here’s the thing: Babies cry. A lot. And humans are generally good at seeing patterns where there are none. Parents who are looking for causes of pain in their babies’ crying can develop impressively elaborate, but ultimately false, narratives to explain this behavior.

None of this is to say that you shouldn’t raise concerns with your pediatrician. But if your child is gaining weight normally, there’s not a lot of reason to suspect celiac disease. If your child is not breaking out in hives and is still breathing, there’s not a lot of reason to suspect a wheat allergy.

If your child seems uncomfortable after eating a food, see what happens the next time he eats it. And the next time. And the time after that. With more data, you may notice that what looked like a pattern is just the haphazard nature of early parenting. If you are in the lucky 96-99% of the population who doesn’t suffer from celiac disease or a wheat allergy, you may find a giant bowl of pasta makes that hard fact easier to swallow.

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We spend a lot of time prepping for the arrival of a baby. But when it comes to the arrival of our breast milk (and all the massive adjustments that come with it), it's easy to be caught off guard. Stocking up on a few breastfeeding essentials can make the transition to breastfeeding a lot less stressful, which means more time and energy focusing on what's most important: Your recovery and your brand new baby.

Here are the essential breastfeeding tools you'll need, mama:

1. For covering up: A cute nursing cover

First and foremost, please know that all 50 states in the United States have laws that allow women to breastfeed in public. You do not have to cover yourself if you don't want to—and many mamas choose not to—and we are all for it.

That said, if you do anticipate wanting to take a more modest approach to breastfeeding, a nursing cover is a must. You will find an array of styles to choose from, but we love an infinity scarf, like the LK Baby Infinity Nursing Scarf Nursing Cover. You'll be able to wear the nursing cover instead of stuffing it in your already brimming diaper bag—and it's nice to have it right there when the baby is ready to eat.

Also, in the inevitable event that your baby spits-up on you or you leak some milk through your shirt, having a quick and stylish way to cover up is a total #momwin.

2. For getting comfortable: A cozy glider

Having a comfy spot to nurse can make a huge difference. Bonus points if that comfy place totally brings a room together, like the Delta Children Paris Upholstered Glider!

Get your cozy space ready to go, and when your baby is here, you can retreat from the world and just nurse, bond, and love.

3. For unmatched support: A wire-free nursing bra

It may take trying on several brands to find the perfect match, but finding a nursing bra that you love is 100% worth the effort. Your breasts will be changing and working in ways that are hard to imagine. An excellent supportive bra will make this so much more comfortable.

It is crucial to choose a wireless bra for the first weeks of nursing since underwire can increase the risk of clogged ducts (ouch).The Playtex Maternity Shaping Foam Wirefree Nursing Bra is an awesome pick for this reason, and because it is designed to flex and fit your breasts as they go through all those changes.

4. For maximum hydration: A large reusable water bottle

Nothing can prepare you for the intense thirst that hits when breastfeeding. Quench that thirst (and help keep your milk supply up in the process) by always having a water bottle with a straw nearby, like this Exquis Large Outdoor Water Bottle.

5. For feeding convenience: A supportive nursing tank

Experts recommend that during the first weeks of your baby's life, you breastfeed on-demand, meaning that any time your tiny boss demands milk, you feed them. This will help establish your milk supply and get everything off to a good start.

What does this mean for your life? You will be breastfeeding A LOT. Nursing tanks, like the Loving Moments by Leading Lady, make this so much easier. They have built-in support to keep you comfy, and you can totally wear them around the house, or even out and about. When your baby wants to eat, you'll be able to quickly "pop out" a breast and feed them.

6. For pain prevention: A quality nipple ointment

Breastfeeding shouldn't hurt, but the truth is those first days can be uncomfortable. Your nipples will likely feel raw as they adjust to their new job. This will get better! But until it does, nipple ointment is amazing.

My favorite is the Earth Mama Organic Nipple Butter. We love that it's organic, and it is oh-so-soothing on your hard-at-work nipples.

Psst: If it actually hurts when your baby latches on, something may be up, so call your provider or a lactation consultant for help.

7. For uncomfortable moments: A dual breast therapy pack

As your breasts adjust to their new role, you may experience a few discomforts—applying warmth or cold can help make them feel so much better. The Lansinoh TheraPearl 3-in-1 Breast Therapy Pack is awesome because you can microwave the pads or put them in the freezer, giving you a lot of options when your breasts need some TLC.

Again, if you have any concerns about something being wrong (pain, a bump that may be red or hot, fever, or anything else), call a professional right away.

8. For inevitable leaks: An absorbing breast pad

In today's episode of, "Oh come on, really?" you are going to leak breastmilk. Now, this is entirely natural and you are certainly not required to do anything about this. Still, many moms choose to wear breast pads in their bras to avoid leaking through to their shirts.

You can go the convenient and disposable route with Lansinoh Disposable Stay Dry Nursing Pads, or for a more environmentally friendly option, you can choose washable pads, like these Organic Bamboo Nursing Breast Pads.

9. For flexibility: A breast pump

Many women find that a breast pump becomes one of their most essential mom-tools. The ability to provide breast milk when you are away from your baby (and relieve uncomfortable engorged breasts) will add so much flexibility into your new-mom life.

For quick trips out and super-easy in-your-bag transport, opt for a manual pump like the Lansinoh Manual Breast Pump .

If you will be away from your baby for longer periods of time (traveling or working outside the home, for example) an electric pump is your most efficient bet. The Medela Pump In Style Advanced Double Electric Breast Pump is a classic go-to that will absolutely get the job done, and then some.

10. For quality storage: Breast milk bags

Once you pump your liquid gold, aka breast milk, you'll need a place to store it. The Kiinde Twist Pouches allow you to pump directly into the bags which means one less step (and way less to clean).

11. For keeping cool: A freezer bag

Transport your pumped milk back home to your baby safely in a cooler like the Mommy Knows Best Breast Milk Baby Bottle Cooler Bag. Remember to put the milk in a fridge or freezer as soon as you can to optimize how long it stays usable for.

12. For continued nourishment: Bottles

Nothing beats the peace of mind you get when you know that your baby is being well-taken of care—and well fed—until you can be together again. The Philips Avent Natural Baby Bottle Newborn Starter Gift Set is a fan favorite (mama and baby fans alike).

This article is sponsored by Walmart. Thank you for supporting the brands that support Motherly and mamas.

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Motherly is committed to covering all relevant presidential candidate plans as we approach the 2020 election. We are making efforts to get information from all candidates. Motherly does not endorse any political party or candidate. We stand with and for mothers and advocate for solutions that will reduce maternal stress and benefit women, families and the country.


A viral video about car seat safety has parents everywhere cracking up and humming Sir-Mix-A-Lot.

"I like safe kids and I cannot lie," raps Norman Regional Health System pediatric hospitalist Dr. Kate Cook (after prefacing her music video with an apology to her children."I'm a doctor tryin' warn you that recs have changed," she continues.

Dr. Cook's rap video is all about the importance of keeping babies facing backward. It's aptly called "Babies Face Back," and uses humor and parody to drive home car seat recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

"Switching from rear-facing to forward-facing is a milestone many parents can't wait to reach," Dr. Cook said in a news release about her hilarious video. "But this is one area where you want to delay the transition as long as possible because each one actually reduces the protection to the child."

Last summer the AAP updated its official stance on car seat safety to be more in line with what so many parents were already doing and recommended that kids stay rear-facing for as long as possible. But with so many things to keep track of in life, it is understandable that some parents still don't know about the change. Dr. Cook wants to change that with some cringe-worthy rapping.

The AAP recommends:

  • Babies and toddlers should ride in a rear-facing car safety seat as long as possible, until they reach the highest weight or height allowed by their seat.
  • Once they are facing forward, children should use a forward-facing car safety seat with a harness for as long as possible. Many seats are good up to 65 pounds.
  • When children outgrow their car seat they should use a belt-positioning booster seat until the vehicle's lap and shoulder seat belt fits properly, between 8 and 12 years old.

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[Editor's note: Motherly is committed to covering all relevant presidential candidate plans as we approach the 2020 election. We are making efforts to get information from all candidates. Motherly does not endorse any political party or candidate. We stand with and for mothers and advocate for solutions that will reduce maternal stress and benefit women, families and the country.]

Suicide rates for girls and women in the United States have increased 50% since 2000, according to the CDC and new research indicates a growing number of pregnant and postpartum women are dying by suicide and overdose. Suicide rates for boys and men are up, too.

It's clear there is a mental health crisis in America and it is robbing children of their mothers and mothers of their children.

Medical professionals urge people to get help early, but sometimes getting help is not so simple. For many Americans, the life preserver that is mental health care is out of reach when they are drowning.

Democratic presidential candidate Pete Buttigieg just released a plan he hopes could change that and says the neglect of mental health in the United States must end. "Our plan breaks down the barriers around mental health and builds up a sense of belonging that will help millions of suffering Americans heal," says Buttigieg.

He thinks he can "prevent 1 million deaths of despair by 2028" by giving Americans more access to mental health and addictions services.

In a country where giving birth can put a mother in debt, it's not surprising that while as many as 1 in 5 new moms suffers from perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, more than half of new moms who need mental health treatment don't get it. Stigma, childcare and of course costs are factors in why women aren't seeking help when they are struggling.

Buttigieg's plan is interesting because it could remove some of these barriers. He wants to make mental health care more affordable by ensuring everyone has comprehensive coverage for mental health care and by ensuring that everyone can access a free yearly mental health check-up.

That could make getting help more affordable for some moms, and by increasing reimbursement rates for mental health care delivered through telehealth, this plan could help moms get face time with a medical professional without having to deal with finding childcare first.

Estimates from new research suggest that in some parts of America as many as 14% or 30% of maternal deaths are caused by addiction or suicide. Buttigieg's plan aims to reduce those estimates by fighting the addiction and opioid crisis and increasing access to mental health services in underserved communities and for people of color. He also wants to reduce the stigma and increase support for the next generation by requiring "every school across the country to teach Mental Health First Aid courses."

These are lofty goals with a lofty price tag. It would cost about $300 billion to do what Buttigieg sets out in his plan and the specifics of how the plan would be funded aren't yet known. Neither is how voters will react to this 18-page plan and whether it will help Buttigieg stand out in a crowded field of Democratic candidates.

What we do know is that right now, America is talking about mental health and whether or not that benefits Buttigieg's campaign it will certainly benefit America.

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[Editor's Note: Welcome to It's Science, a Motherly column focusing on evidence-based explanations for the important moments, milestones, and phenomena of motherhood. Because it's not just you—#itsscience.]

If you breastfeed, you know just how magical (and trying) it is, but it has numerous benefits for mama and baby. It is known to reduce the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis, and cuts the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) by half.

If this wasn't powerful enough, scientists have discovered that babies who are fed breast milk have a stomach pH that promotes the formation of HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells). HAMLET was discovered by chance when researchers were studying the antibacterial properties of breast milk. This is a combination of proteins and lipids found in breast milk that can work together to kill cancer cells, causing them to pull away from healthy cells, shrink and die, leaving the healthy cells unaffected.

According to researchers at Lund University in Sweden, this mechanism may contribute to the protective effect breast milk has against pediatric tumors and leukemia, which accounts for about 30% of all childhood cancer. Other researchers analyzed 18 different studies, finding that "14% to 19% of all childhood leukemia cases may be prevented by breastfeeding for six months or more."

And recently, doctors in Sweden collaborated with scientists in Prague to find yet another amazing benefit to breast milk. Their research demonstrated that a certain milk sugar called Alpha1H, found only in breast milk, helps in the production of lactose and can transform into a different form that helps break up tumors into microscopic fragments in the body.

Patients who were given a drug based on this milk sugar, rather than a placebo, passed whole tumor fragments in their urine. And there is more laboratory evidence to support that the drug can kill more than 40 different types of cancer cells in animal trials, including brain tumors and colon cancer. These results are inspiring scientists to continue to explore HAMLET as a novel approach to tumor therapy and make Alpha1H available to cancer patients.

Bottom line: If you choose to breastfeed, the breast milk your baby gets from your hard work can be worth every drop of effort.

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