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My son will be 27 months old when his baby sister is due. I'm under no delusions that I can ever fully prepare him for the changes that will bring. As a Montessori teacher of young children, I've seen many times how new siblings can completely rock a child's world. New additions often bring big feelings and inconvenient regressions in things like toileting and sleep.

While I know nothing can truly prepare my son for all of this change, it certainly seems worthwhile to try.

Here are some Montessori-inspired ways I've been preparing my firstborn throughout my pregnancy.

1. Explain what will happen

In Montessori classrooms, we always inform children of changes to come. We tell them if we will be out of the classroom and they will have a different teacher or if there will be a special celebration that will disrupt their routine. This shows respect for the child and also addresses young children's strong need for predictable routines.

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We started talking to my son about his new baby sister as soon as the first trimester was over. I showed him the ultrasound pictures and talked about how the baby was growing inside of me right now, but he would get to meet her in a few months.

I've also talked to him about what will happen when the baby is actually born, like showing him the hospital where he will come meet his baby sister and he has even met the doctor who will deliver her. We explain who will take care of him while baby sister is being born. Telling your toddler early on, and including as much detail as possible, will help them emotionally prepare and feel included.

2. Follow their lead

"Follow the child" is a common phrase in Montessori, and one that describes the approach I've taken to talking to my son about his new sister. Since breaking the news, I've brought up the new baby often. Sometimes my son is interested and wants to talk about it, and sometimes he does not.

I make sure to follow his lead with these conversations. My goal is to present plenty of opportunities for him to ask questions, without forcing him to talk about it if he's not ready to, or making him feel like the new baby is all we talk about.

As time has passed, he brings up "baby sister" more and more on his own. I always make sure to stop what I'm doing, make eye contact and be present for these conversations when he initiates them. Making yourself available to talk, without forcing the subject, lets your toddler know that he's being heard and that is questions are welcomed.

3. Get them involved

In Montessori, children are involved in every part of daily life. This includes taking care of the classroom, preparing food for themselves and their classmates, and fixing things when they break. Involving my son in preparing for the new baby has been my favorite, and I think most effective, way of preparing him.

My toddler helped me put together a shelf for his sister's closet. This was months ago and he still talks about it and likes to look at the shelf.

He helped to think of potential names for his new sibling— though his favorite was "Spee," which I admit did not make the shortlist.

He helps me fold and put away her tiny laundry, choose what pictures to hang in her room, and has created art for her room by making a small painting we can frame on her toy shelf.

I also talk to him about the ways he can help after she is born, such as bringing me diapers, helping choose baby's clothes, reading books and singing songs.

Helping in a real way make toddlers feel included and proud, and gives them a sense of purpose.

4. Set expectations

Part of helping young children be successful is setting clear expectations for appropriate behavior. We have talked a lot about the importance of being gentle with babies. We've practiced this by reminding my toddler that baby sister is in my belly and he needs to be gentle with me. We also practice doing other things, like closing doors and touching plants and animals, very gently.

It's easy to forget that small children don't always know the basic rules of society and sometimes all they need is for someone to patiently inform them and to practice together.

5. Use "time in"

The term "time in" refers to devoting extra time to just being with our children, reassuring them with our presence and attention that they are seen and loved.

I've tried to spend a little extra quality one-on-one time with my son these last few months. I want him to feel as confident and secure in our relationship as possible when the baby is born.

6. Encourage independent play time

On the flip side, I've also been working harder to encourage independent play time. Children in Montessori classrooms are highly independent, completing complex work on their own. This can be harder when you're home with your child though, as it's so easy to give them individual attention all day.

I've made a point recently of doing household tasks or simply reading a book while my son is playing. I make sure to do this after I've spent some time giving him my undivided attention.
I tell him, "You can help me or you can go play, but I can't play right now." This way, I'm not telling him to go away, but I am letting him know that I'm not always available to do what he wants right away.

Sometimes he helps me or sits with me, sometimes he plays on his own, and sometimes he whines and continually asks me to come play. It is a gradual process.

7. Look at pictures of babies

We've made my son's baby book available to him and have spent countless hours looking through it. We talk about how tiny he was when he was born and how little he knew how to do and how he grew and can now do so many things.

We discuss how it will be the same with his baby sister, how she won't be able to play with him at first, but she will grow and grow until she can do all of the things he likes to do like play Legos and run outside.

Spending time around friends' or family members' babies is also a wonderful way to help set realistic expectations for what a baby is actually like.

8. Use a Topponcino

A topponcino is a tiny mattress/pillow for babies that is commonly used in Montessori homes. It acts as a security object for infants, as it absorbs the parents' smell and helps the baby feel safe when he is held by others.

It is also wonderful for allowing siblings to hold babies, with supervision of course, as it acts as a sturdy barrier between the two children. We have the topponcino out in the new baby's room and practice holding it carefully, sometimes with a favorite stuffed animal on top.

As the final weeks go by and we near the arrival of our newest family member, I'm growing less anxious and more excited about how my toddler will react to being a big brother.

Yes, I know it will be hard and he will want my attention and I will feel guilty when I can't give it to him. But I also trust him that he will process the changes and learn to treasure his little sister and I trust myself that I've done everything I can to prepare him.

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It's finally 2020. It's hard to believe but the old decade is over, the new one is here and it is bringing a lot of new life with it. The babies born this year are members of Generation Alpha and the world is waiting for them.

We're only a few days into the new year and there are already some new celebrity arrivals making headlines while making their new parents proud.

If your little one arrived (or is due to arrive) in 2020, they've got plenty of high profile company.

Here are all the celebrity babies born in 2020 (so far):

Ashley Graham is a mama! 🎉

A new chapter is unfolding for model and podcaster Ashley Graham, who just announced she and her husband Justin Ervin have met their baby.

The baby arrived Saturday, according to a post made on Graham's Instagram Stories.

"At 6:00pm on Saturday our lives changed for the better," reads the Story. "Thank you for all your love and support during this incredible time."

Graham previously announced that she and Ervin were expecting a son. They initially announced the pregnancy on their ninth wedding anniversary.

Congratulations to Ashley and Justin!

Cameron Diaz and Benji Madden just welcomed a baby girl! 🎉

Surprise! Cameron Diaz and Benji Madden are ringing in the New Year as first-time parents!

"Happy New Year from the Maddens!" reads a birth announcement posted to both Diaz and Madden's Instagram accounts. "We are so happy, blessed and grateful to begin this new decade by announcing the birth of our daughter, Raddix Madden. She has instantly captured our hearts and completed our family."

Raddix Madden is the first child for Diaz, 47, and Madden, 40.

The couple say they won't be posting any pictures of their daughter on social media as they "feel a strong instinct to protect our little one's privacy."

Congratulations to the Maddens! 🎉

Dylan Dreyer of 'Today' is a mom of 2! 

Today meteorologist Dylan Dreyer and her husband Brian Fichera, welcomed their second child, Oliver George Fichera, the first week of January 2020. Oliver joins his big brother Calvin to make the family a foursome.

Dreyer is still recovering from birth but her voice was on TV this week when she called into her show with an update on her new family. "I feel good," Dylan told her colleagues. "I just feel so happy and so blessed."

Caterina Scorsone of 'Grey's Anatomy' now has 3 girls!

Caterina Scorsone of Grey's Anatomy has so much to be thankful for in 2020: She's now a mom of three! The actress announced the birth of her daughter via Instagram, noting that her baby's name is Arwen.

Arwen joins big sisters Eliza, 7, and 3-year-old Paloma, who has Down syndrome. Speaking on The Motherly Podcast last year, Scorsone explained how Paloma's diagnosis made her "whole concept of what motherhood was had to shift."

It is likely shifting again, as any mama who has gone from two kids to three knows.

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When it comes to taking care of the baby and the house, modern dads say they want to be equal partners.

But when Saturday arrives, research shows men are often relaxing while women are the ones doing unpaid housework with a “leisure time" discrepancy of more than 50 minutes a day on the weekends.

The study revealed that women were more likely than men to spend their weekends watching kids or performing housework.

So after a long week of watching kids or clocking hours on the job, what does mom do more of than dad? Work.

Claire M. Kamp Dush, Ph.D., an associate professor of human sciences at The Ohio State University, and lead author of the new study, says she is hopeful we can all find more balance. It's just going to take some hard discussions—and an understanding that there's more than one way to load a dishwasher or dress a baby.

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The study published in the journal Sex Roles saw Ohio State researchers tracking how 52 dual-income couples spent their time on a minute-by-minute basis as they welcomed their first child. The participating couples kept time diaries for workdays and non-workdays during the third trimester and for about three months after the baby's birth.

The researchers expected to see a lot of entries where mom and dad were doing childcare or housework together, but they didn't.

“Men actually increased their time doing leisure while she was doing work across the transition of parenthood," Kamp Dush shares. “It actually got worse once the baby was there."

According to Kamp Dush, there are a couple of factors behind this disappointing dynamic.

“One thing that's going on is women have a lot of societal pressure put on them to be perfect mothers. So if something is less than perfect with the baby or the house, the consequences are coming back on them," she explains, adding this pressure to have everything done to high standards may lead some moms to micromanage their partners.

If a dad is slacking, Kamp Dush suggests moms ascertain what his motivations are. Often, she says the solution may be as simple as empowering him to do things his own way. (Even if it isn't the outfit you would have picked for the baby...)

“It may also be the case that he just doesn't want to do it and he enjoys his leisure time," says Kamp Dush. If that's the case, she suggests calmly explaining the cost that his rest requires you pay. That may prompt him to do a bit more because, as Kamp Dush says, “He might also enjoy having a happier spouse and co-parent."

The earlier you can have these conversations, the better

Unaddressed resentment in relationships tends to build overtime, which is why it's essential to check in on how you (and your partner) are feeling early and often.

Kamp Dush suggests moms with heavy mental loads write down the tasks and duties they're dealing with. Then rip the list in half and hand it to dad. Couples can certainly negotiate the listed responsibilities, but the important thing is that they're not all on mom.

“Then, you're going to have to let it go," she explains. “Men know how to do these things. As women, we need to just let them do it."

Dads need to do 50 minutes more of unpaid work

The gender disparity in unpaid work hurts our careers, our families and our relationships, but it doesn't have to.

According to the Promundo's State of the World's Fathers' report, if men did 50 minutes of unpaid work a day we could close the gender gap.

"We need men to do our share. Fifty minutes more to relieve women of 50 minutes less would get us really close to equal," the president and CEO of Promundo, Gary Barker, tells Motherly.

When dads are more empowered and moms feel like their household responsibilities are more balanced, the whole family is going to be better off.

[A version of this post was first published July 29, 2018. It has been updated.]

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For new mamas back to sitting behind their desks at work some six weeks (or fewer) after their babies are born, the institutionalized parental leave policy in Denmark is the stuff of daydreams: Over in that Scandinavian paradise, parents are granted 52 weeks of paid leave to divide between them.

There's no denying this is much, much better than the state of parental leave in the United States, but it isn't quite as perfect as it seems from the outside. According to Denmark's Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, women take an average 93% of leave allotted to couples. And when they do return to work, mothers' wages suffer both in comparison to men and women without children.

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The good news is that it seems the solution to this gender income gap is something we—the mothers of today, even here in America—can do something about.

A new paper from the US National Bureau of Economic Research that examined Danish administration information from 1980 to 2013 found the motherhood penalty “creates a gender gap in earnings of around 20% in the long run," which is comparable to the gap in the United States.

What's more, the income discrepancy only increases for each child a family in Denmark has: If a woman has four children, her income is only $0.60 to every dollar a man makes—10 years down the road.

While this indicates paid parental leave alone may not be the panacea for the gender income gap, the researchers suggest that changing the way we think about roles in the workplaces and homes could help—at least when it comes to the next generation.

“As a possible explanation for the persistence of child penalties, we show that they are transmitted through generations, from parents to daughters (but not sons)," the researchers note, explaining that the more a daughter's mother worked while the girl was growing up, the less the daughter's income was affected when she became a mother.

“Women tend to adopt a balance of paid work and childcare that is correlated with the one they saw their mother strike when they were growing up," Henrik Kleven, a Princeton economist and the paper's lead author, tells Quartz At Work.

What this looks like in practice is splitting household responsibilities from the get-go and encouraging fathers to take more leave. (In Sweden, where fathers are penalized for not taking advantage of paternity leave, women's earning rose an average 7% for each month of leave that men took.)

According to the State of the World's Fathers' report, produced by Promundo (a non-profit organization dedicated to engaging men and boys in gender equality in partnership with Dove Men+Care) 85% of dads surveyed in the United States, the UK, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Japan and the Netherlands want to take paternity leave, and yet less than 50% of fathers take as much time as their country's policy allows, and social norms, financial pressures and a lack of support from their managers are all factors.

The report also found that if fathers are able to do just under an hour of unpaid work per day, mothers can cut their unpaid labor time by the same amount.

"We need men to do our share. Fifty minutes more to relieve women of 50 minutes less would get us really close to equal," the president and CEO of Promundo, Gary Barker, told Motherly.

This may help shift us toward more income equality today—and, as the research shows, our daughters will really be able to reap the benefits.

[A version of this post was first published January 29, 2018. It has been updated.]

News

There's no doubt: It's a new parenting era than 20 or 30 years ago.

Now faced with questions about how to limit screen time, when to give children phones and how to protect them from cyber threats, there are simply some issues that today's parents can't get advice on from our own parents.

Does that mean it's harder to be a parent today than when we were growing up? Yes, say 88% of young moms and dads.

According to a BPI Network survey of 2,000 parents in the United States and Canada, the leading reasons parenting feels harder than ever include: social media distractions, challenges with two working parents, emotional or behavioral dysfunction, peer competition or bullying, and violence and safety concerns in schools.

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Of course, most of us weren't fully aware of the challenges our parents faced when we were young—such as the fact they couldn't readily call on their own moms for advice lest they wanted to rack up major long-distance bills and couldn't have anything in the world delivered to their doorsteps within two days.

Regardless of whether it's true, the perception that parenting is harder than ever has contributed to some two-thirds of the respondents saying they've experienced "parental burnout."

"Parental burnout is a state of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion," says Neil D. Brown, LCSW, author of Ending The Parent-Teen Control Battle. "It leaves parents feeling chronically fatigued… and it can lead to depression, chronic anxiety and illness."

With 40% reporting parental burnout has "significantly" affected their qualities of life and another 49% saying it has "somewhat" affected their wellbeing, it's time employers take a vested interest in addressing the issue, says Dave Murray, Chief Strategy and Research Officer at the BPI Network.

"It is staggering to look at the incidence of [parental burnout] symptoms among working parents in America and understand the implications this has for added employee burden, cost, concern and downtime," Murray says, adding that counseling services to promote healthy parenting should "certainly" be among the benefits employers look to offer.

Many working parents are also hopeful that their employers will recognize the importance of practices that support healthy balance between work and life—with 78% of respondents to Motherly's 2018 State of Motherhood survey saying they believe it's possible to combine careers and motherhood. Of those who worked outside the home, the biggest changes they would like to see include subsidies for childcare or on-site childcare, paid maternity leave and more flexible schedules.

In our second annual State of Motherhood Survey in 2019 just over half (51%) of mothers said "I feel discouraged: it's extremely challenging managing trade-offs" associated with combining a career and motherhood.

The consequences of unaddressed parental burnout have an unfortunate way of spilling over to other members of the family. According to a recent study published in the journal Child Abuse & Neglect, a sample of 1,551 parents suggested "parental burnout has a statistically similar effect to job burnout on addictions and sleep problems, a stronger effect on couples' conflicts and partner estrangement mindset and a specific effect on child-related outcomes (neglect and violence) and escape and suicidal ideation."

While employers have a stake in addressing this issue, there's also a lot that individuals can do—like starting by cutting ourselves a break on self-imposed expectations. As research has shown, the more grace we give ourselves and others in the ways we parent, the less prone we ultimately are to burning out.

And while we've heard this all before, it's also worth remembering just how important it is to take time for ourselves. "We must have regular practices to refuel," LMHC Jasmin Terrany previously told Motherly. "We don't need to feel guilty about taking this time for ourselves—our kids will not only learn that self-care is essential, but when we are good, they will be good."

Then don't feel one ounce of guilt about using that time to call someone long-distance or place another Amazon Prime delivery so you can remember that parenting in this day and age does have its perks.

[A version of this post was originally published July 29, 2018. It has been updated.]

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