When I lost my father suddenly to a fatal heart attack four years ago, the pain of loss and subsequent grief were overwhelming. At the time, my husband and I had two little girls (ages 5 and 2), who were very attached to their PopPop Geno, and in many ways, they were my path through grief.
I had to quickly figure out how I was going to walk them through the grieving process while trying to navigate my own emotions. Loss is an inevitable part of life, and the intense sorrow that accompanies the loss of a loved one through death or separation is a normal response. These feelings can be overwhelming and confusing for children who don't quite understand death.
In preparing children for death, it's important to be honest, explicit and as concrete as possible without providing too much information. After a loss, avoid saying well-meaning euphemisms for death such as, "he's gone to sleep forever," or telling a young child that someone, "…was very sick and died," which can stoke fear of going to sleep or getting sick for children who are very literal in their thinking. It's best to have conversations that are simple, honest and developmentally appropriate.
Here are four ways to help children deal with death:
1. Have patience.
2. Develop a narrative.
Often, feelings of change or abandonment can surface depending on how close the friend or family member was to the child. Having a story about that person to hold on to allows them more time to fully process the loss as their capacity to better understand death also develops.
Having a narrative also helps kids understand they didn't do anything wrong and that they weren't the reason the person left.
In my case, we opted to talk about good memories and how much their grandfather loved them. Now, they will often do something they are proud of and say, "PopPop would have loved to be here for that!" It continues to let him be present and for my kids to stay in a relationship with him. Remember that if you don't help your children develop a narrative, they will develop their own.
As you develop a story with them, make sure you share your own feelings as well. It's hard for a child to understand unexpected emotions, but having a caregiver model feelings can be powerful. Children learn well when they have a vocabulary for these feelings and a model for behaviors that are appropriate expressions of grief. Seeing a parent cry can be scary for them but that experience provides a learning opportunity and therapy for you, too. So, sharing that you are okay but sad right now might help children normalize their own feelings.
3. Create a totem.
Children are such concrete thinkers, meaning they have trouble with abstract concepts, so having a tangible object, such as a picture, item of clothing or even a game or figurine from that person can help ease the transition in their absence.
By allowing a child to transfer significance to a lovey connected to a person they lost, they can also grieve in their own time. Creating a scrapbook with memories and pictures can be a powerful way to process loss together in an experiential way. Try making a game of hunting for meaningful items, pictures and items that represent good times.
4. Give children the chance to say goodbye.
You may decide not to expose your child to the funeral and that's okay. However, it's important to let them find a way to help them say their own goodbye. Funeral rituals can provide closure for family members and allow us to grieve in community. Consider having a small family memorial that allows your child to tell their passed loved one about their favorite memory, what they loved about them and what they might miss. At any age, this can be cathartic. If you decide to take your child to the funeral, make sure you prepare them ahead of time that a lot of people will be sad but they are there because they all loved the person who passed.
Above all, respect that your child is handling intense emotions the best way they can. If you don't have the perfect words, just reflect back what you are hearing your child say. The best thing parents can do is be present and empathic.