Diet and nutrition are essential factors in getting your body ready for making a baby, but what male partners consume in the months before conception matters significantly, too.

Fertility foods aren’t just for women—there are certain foods to increase sperm count and quality, along with other foods men should aim to avoid when they’re trying to conceive.

Related: A nutritionist’s guide to the best foods for pregnancy, from the early days to the third trimester

In fact, men are found to contribute to almost 50% of all cases of infertility. While there are a number of factors that can impact male fertility, sperm quality and quantity are two of the biggest. A man is considered to have a low sperm count if he has fewer than 39 million sperm per ejaculation. It still sounds like a lot, but considering how far sperm have to travel, it’s not that many.

The point? It’s important for men who are trying to conceive to evaluate their diet so it won’t interfere with their chances of conceiving.

It’s also good to know that any dietary changes should be put in place at least two months in advance of your ideal conception date, as it takes 64 days for sperm to reach maturation. Unfortunately, there’s no quick way to increase sperm volume overnight.

Be sure to discuss any fertility struggles with your doctor, but looking at what’s on both partners’ plates can contribute to overall sexual health and fertility, as can male fertility supplements (more on that below).

10 fertility foods for men when trying to conceive

Looking to boost male fertility? Start by filling your plate with this list of food to increase sperm count.

1. Oysters & pumpkin seeds

Both oysters (and other forms of shellfish) and pumpkin seeds are naturally very high in zinc, which is one of the best minerals for male fertility—and sexual reproductive health in general. Zinc is involved in boosting testosterone levels, as well as improving sperm motility and sperm count.

Zinc is essential for sperm function and is known as a hormone balancer, while also protecting against heavy metals and cigarette toxins. Oysters are also heralded as an aphrodisiac (so maybe a dinner out for oysters are in order?).

Related: How to reduce stress while trying to conceive

Are male fertility supplements necessary?

Not everyone needs male prenatal vitamins, but they can be helpful. Just like multivitamins can fill nutritional gaps, preconception male fertility supplements are specifically formulated to provide essential nutrients that may be missing from the diet. In some cases, they may contain dosages of certain nutrients that are higher than what’s typically found in food. If you have questions or concerns about your male partner’s fertility, it’s a good idea to check in with your doctor.

WeNatal Male Prenatal Vitamins - Best Male Preconception Vitamins

WeNatal

$64.95 for a 30-day supply

WeNatal for Him

WeNatal for Him includes 15 essential nutrients for male reproductive health, is third-party tested, and is allergen-free. As you read through the supplement ingredients, the interactive website lets you click on the nutrient to learn more about its benefits and see research studies backing up the claims. The product comes in a refillable glass jar with a 30-day supply that includes antioxidants like vitamin E and CoQ10 and n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), which may increase sperm count and motility.

Bird & Be Prenatal Essentials for Males - Best Male Prenatal Vitamins

Bird & Be

$35 for a 30-day supply

Prenatal Essential for Males

Sent in a 1-month supply of daily packs, Bird & Be Prenatal contains high-quality, bioavailable nutrients to support optimal absorption. Nutrients in this product include antioxidants, vitamins and minerals for optimal sperm health, protection against DNA damage, and healthy thyroid function. You’ll also get omega-3 fatty acids to support motility and a healthy cellular membrane. 

2. Kiwi

One kiwi contains almost the full daily recommended value of vitamin C for men. Studies have shown oral supplementation of vitamin C improves sperm motility, count and morphology. Other foods that contain vitamin C include red peppers, citrus fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage. In general, increasing your intake of fruits and veggies is also associated with better sperm quality.

Related: Here’s an updated fertility glossary: Because the terms we use matter

3. Dark green, leafy vegetables

Folate (also known as the food form of vitamin B9, or folic acid), which is found in abundance in spinach, kale, romaine lettuce, Brussels sprouts and asparagus, as well as legumes like peas and lentils, can help produce strong, healthy sperm.

4. Dark chocolate

Swap any milk chocolate for the dark variety, which contains arginine, an amino acid. Supplementation of arginine may improve sperm count and quality over time.

Related: Which supplements should I take to increase fertility?

5. Salmon & sardines

The omega-3 fatty acids found in high amounts in fish—especially salmon, mackerel, anchovies, herring and sardines—may help improve the quality and quantity of sperm. For a vegan/plant-based option, try adding chia seeds, walnuts or ground flaxseeds to smoothies or sprinkled on plant-based yogurt.

Related: Everything you need to know about getting pregnant

6. Brazil nuts

The selenium found in Brazil nuts may help increase sperm motility, especially when combined with vitamin E. Selenium is a trace mineral that’s often lacking in Americans’ diets, so supplementation may be helpful.

7. Water

Staying hydrated is crucial for optimal health, and water also helps create healthy seminal fluid.

Related: An OB/GYN answers the 10 top questions women want to ask about fertility—but don’t

8. Avocado

Rich in D-aspartic acid, a non-essential amino acid that has a role in hormone production and nervous system function, avocados are a potent fertility food as some evidence shows that D-aspartic acid (DAA) may work to increase testosterone levels. The research on DAA supplementation is mixed, but you can certainly add more DAA-containing foods to your diet (such as avocado) to reap potential benefits.

9. Maca root

Maca root is a Peruvian medicinal herb that has a very long history of use in traditional medicine as a libido booster and may improve semen quality. It’s technically a powdered root vegetable that tastes a bit nutty. Sprinkle it on oatmeal or use it in smoothies.

10. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are rich in a powerful antioxidant known as lycopene. A recent randomized, placebo-controlled trial (the gold standard of scientific research) found that supplementation with lycopene improved sperm motility and morphology in 56 young men, which means that adding more tomatoes to his salad can only help when it comes to fertility.

Perelel Men's Multi Support Pack - best men's prenatal vitamins

Perelel Health

$49.70 for a 30-day supply

Men’s Multi Supplement

Developed by a fertility doctor, Perelel’s Men’s Multi Support Pack is a third-party tested, research-backed formula to support fertility and whole health. Each packet includes a multivitamin containing antioxidants to support fertility and vitamins and minerals in activated or bioavailable forms. Packets also include CoQ10 and omega-3 fatty acids for extra sperm health support. Perelel’s Men’s Multi is gluten-free and non-GMO with an easy-to-read ingredient list (meaning minimal extras like preservatives or fillers.)

Needed Men's Multi - best men's fertility supplements

Needed

$49.99 for a 30-day supply

Men's Multi

The Needed Men’s Multi can be taken for general health or preconception support. Since it’s a multivitamin and not just a fertility supplement, the Needed supplement contains more nutrients than the other options on this list, but still contains the important sperm-supportive nutrients. The antioxidant blend includes extracts from fruits like grape and cranberry, known for their antioxidant capacity. Needed could be a good option for someone who wants to ensure they are getting the right nutrients for fertility but who also wants a comprehensive multivitamin.

5 male fertility foods to avoid

While adding more nutrient-dense foods into their diet, men should also be cognizant of which foods to steer clear of when trying to conceive, too. When it comes to male fertility, foods to avoid include anything that might increase inflammation in the body.

1. Fried foods

These hard-to-resist foods can decrease the quality of sperm, thanks to the fact that fried foods contain advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which contribute to increased levels of oxidative stress. As an occasional treat, they’re fine, but if fried foods are a dietary staple, it might be worth cutting back.

2. Processed meats

Processed meats (including bacon, ham, sausage, hot dogs, corned beef, beef jerky, canned meat and meat sauces) can lower sperm count. Swapping processed meats for white fish such as cod or halibut or fatty fish such as salmon can boost sperm count, researchers found.

3. Caffeine

Ready for that second cup of coffee? Not so fast! Researchers have linked moderate caffeine consumption by both men and women in the weeks leading up to conception to an increased risk for miscarriage. Consider sticking to just one cup per day max or swapping for decaf.

Related: Even a little coffee during pregnancy can impact your baby’s birth weight, says study

4. Alcohol

One or two alcoholic drinks per day are OK for men, but more than 14 mixed drinks in a week can lower testosterone levels and affect sperm count. In fact, studies show that consistent drinking (five or more drinks in a two-hour time frame) have negative effects on sperm, too. Similarly, smoking and drug use should also be stopped when trying to conceive.

Related: There’s a link between fathers’ alcohol consumption and higher rates of birth defects, says new study

5. Dairy

Regular intake of full-fat dairy, specifically cheese, has been associated with poor sperm quality when compared with those who had lower intakes.

Researchers at Harvard found that even three servings per day of cheese was associated with markers of low sperm quality, which might be a reason to skip the cheese while you’re trying to conceive.

Natalist Male Prenatal Vitamins - Best men's fertility supplements

Natalist

$60 for a 30-day supply

Prenatal for Him

Developed by a doctor and registered dietitian, Natalist male prenatal packets contain highly researched sperm-supporting nutrients like antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid. The product is allergen-free and contains no artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives. Natalist focuses on seven key ingredients for sperm health that are backed by peer-reviewed nutritional research—but also note that as research is ever changing, they may occasionally update their formula.

A note from Motherly: Foods that increase sperm count

Aside from dietary changes, here’s how to increase sperm count: focusing on good sleep hygiene, boosting exercise and limiting environmental toxins such as pollution can bring big benefits when it comes to male fertility.

Changing his diet and habits is not an easy task. But when the big picture includes not only maintaining a healthier lifestyle but also bringing a baby into the world, it’s a lot easier to get on board.

Related: It’s time to stop calling infertility a women’s health issue

Labcorp OnDemand Men's Rapid Fertility Test

Labcorp OnDemand

$199

Men's Rapid Fertility Test

Want to take out some of the guesswork? Labcorp OnDemand’s Male Fertility Testing System empowers men to better understand their sperm concentration and semen volume. This easy-to-use at home test provides results in under an hour, arming you both with crucial info that can help you on your path to parenthood. Refill packs can be purchased and used to monitor changes along the way.

Sources

Afeiche M, Williams PL, Mendiola J, Gaskins AJ, Jørgensen N, Swan SH, Chavarro JE. Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men. Human reproduction. 2013 Aug 1;28(8):2265-75. doi:10.1093/humrep/det133

Akmal M, Qadri JQ, Al-Waili NS, Thangal S, Haq A, Saloom KY. Improvement in human semen quality after oral supplementation of vitamin C. J Med Food. 2006;9(3):440-442. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.440

Fallah A, Mohammad-Hasani A, Colagar AH. Zinc is an essential element for male fertility: a review of Zn roles in men’s health, Germination, Sperm Quality, and Fertilization. J Reprod Infertil. 2018;19(2):69-81.

Moslemi MK, Tavanbakhsh S. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:99-104. Published 2011 Jan 23. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S16275

A version of this story was originally published on October 7, 2019. It has been updated.