What experts want you to know about your due date

When I got my first ultrasound, my doctor measured the peanut-shaped embryo growing inside of me and managed to gift me with the sweet, sweet sound of my baby's heartbeat. I was five weeks along, maybe six, she said. After I told her the first day of my last period, she confirmed that I was in fact six weeks pregnant.

I told her my menstrual cycles were much longer than the 28-day average and wondered if that fact changed anything. But her mind was set: my baby was to be born on October 29, 2014.

My pregnancy, as a nurse later told me, was "boring." I was a healthy 29-year old woman; I didn't have gestational diabetes; and my blood pressure remained steadily normal throughout the pregnancy. There was no reason to believe that I would need to fight for a chance to give birth naturally.

Yet a week before the big day, my doctor informed me that my cervix was not thinning. I was apparently nowhere close to going into labor, and I should schedule an induction to deliver on my due date.

Why the rush, I asked? My son's predicted birth day seemed to be more of an educated guess, and a pregnancy is usually considered late at the 41-week mark. In fact, many doctors are willing to wait until the 42nd week to perform an induction. My OBGYN, on the other hand, regurgitated all the scary science she knew on stillbirths, C-sections and late labors. According to her, I was not an at-risk patient, but I could become one by holding onto the idea of a natural birth. That day (and again on my due date), I did not schedule an induction, and my son was born on November 1, 2014 — three days "late."

As it turned out, my son's tardiness wasn't the exception, but the rule. Only 5% of women deliver on their actual due date, and doctors do recognize that due dates are anything but predictable. So why was I being forced into labor a week before the big day? What did my son and I really risk by waiting it out? And if due dates offer no guarantee, what do they really stand for?

To help prepare for your baby's big debut, we've asked the pros to give us their views on due dates. Here's what they said:

The midwife: Lauren Abrams, CNM, MSN — Clinical Director of Midwifery at Mount Sinai Hospital

"One of the most important things the midwife or doctor does at the first prenatal visit is to establish the due date. Having an accurate due date is crucial, because it allows us to offer prenatal tests at the appropriate time in pregnancy, and it tells us the safest time for the woman to give birth. Many of the tests we do during pregnancy need to be done during a specific time frame, so if the due date is not correct, the results of these tests may not be accurate.

"In terms of labor, we know that a pregnancy is considered full term any time between 37 and 42 weeks after the first day of the last menstrual period, so this is the safest time period in which to give birth. For women who are having uncomplicated pregnancies, it's always best to wait for labor to start on its own.

"Sometimes women ask us to induce the labor before the due date, because they are tired and uncomfortable, or wish to give birth on a certain date; however, for women who are having uncomplicated pregnancies, waiting for labor to start on its own is best, because it gives the woman the best chance of having an uncomplicated vaginal birth and a healthy baby. If labor has not started by 42 weeks, though, we will recommend induction, as we know that babies born after 42 weeks have a higher rate of complications."

The doula: Lindsey Bliss — Carriage House Birth Director & Birth Doula

"Due dates are only based on averages. I wish we could all call it the due month instead. Two weeks before or after the due date is still considered term. I don't know about you but I am not average, nor have I ever fallen within an average range for anything in my life.

"I'm on my sixth baby and not one of them came on their due date. There is this extreme pressure from our society for women to have delivered before or on their due date. This is such an unrealistic expectation. I can't tell you how many unnecessary inductions are performed just because women are considered 'LATE' when they go past 40 weeks. In a healthy pregnancy, I truly believe that labor will start when the baby is ready. I believe in our bodies innate wisdom to give birth."

The OB/GYN: Cara Dolin, MD — OB/GYN, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellow at NYU Langone Medical Center

“The due date is very important. It tells me how far along my patient is, what developmental milestones I expect to see on the ultrasound, what tests to perform and how to counsel patients. Many management decisions about the pregnancy are made based on the due date, this becomes especially important as a woman's due date comes and goes with no sign of labor.

"There are risks to letting a pregnancy continue beyond the 40th week, including having a very large baby, needing forceps, a vacuum or cesarean delivery and even stillbirth. Because of these risks to both mother and baby, it is recommended that labor be induced before 43 weeks. Many providers will induce labor at 41 weeks. Ultimately, the decision to be induced is made between a woman and her physician or midwife based on the specific circumstances of her pregnancy."

The labor nurse: Jeanne Faulkner — registered nurse and author of Common Sense Pregnancy

"The medical community has quit putting so much emphasis on delivering by the due date. That's because too many inductions fail to lead to vaginal births and too many women end up with C-sections. Too many babies thought to be due or near due, are being delivered just a wee bit too early and ending up in the NICU with breathing problems.

"We know there's a lot of finish work to be completed before a baby is ready to leave the womb and live life independently from its mother. We shouldn't shortchange babies by unnecessarily delivering them early. Even the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists agrees that mothers and babies know best (most of the time, anyway) about when baby should be born. Their most recent guidelines discourage doctors and mothers from scheduling inductions solely for due-date related reasons.

"If a healthy woman with a normal pregnancy is pressured by her doctor or midwife to have an induction or scheduled c-section, she should ask for more information. She needs to understand why her pregnancy or health falls under ACOG's guidelines for appropriate induction. If she's fine and her baby's fine, then it's probably also fine for labor to start on its own."

The acupuncturist: Aimee Raupp — Wellness & fertility expert, acupuncturist

"To me, due dates are approximations. They are calculated based on the first day of the last menstrual period, which is roughly two weeks before a woman ovulates and can even get pregnant. Plus, it can take from 2 to 9 days for the fertilized embryo to implant in the uterine wall. So I encourage my patients to think of their due date as a guesstimate.

"I remind them that babies come when they are ready: they can come early on their own, and they can come later than expected, which is often the case for first time pregnancies. If babies aren't budging, there could be a reason that requires our patience and/or further medical intervention.

"Acupuncture can really get the labor process going, and many women who are nearing or past their due date often come to me (or are referred to me by their doctors). From my experience, acupuncture usually works within one or two visits. When it doesn't, I believe it means that baby just isn't ready to come out.

"Let's not forget, too, that the very definition of a 'full-term' pregnancy varies from one country to the next. Here, 'full term' is technically 40 weeks and 6 days; in some European countries, 'full term' is now 41 weeks and 6 days. But I think that as long as there are no medical reasons—like high blood pressure, swelling, fever, low amniotic fluid, etc—and the woman is still comfortable, it is okay to go past the 'full term' mark.

"When and if the time comes, I rely on signs of early labor, like the baby's low positioning and contractions, to do some treatment and encourage the progression of labor — but only once the woman hits 40 weeks, not before."

The pediatrician: Mona Amin, DO — pediatrician at Tribeca Pediatrics

"A due date does give us a lot of information about what to expect with a baby, especially if he or she is premature (born prior to 37 weeks). We always like to know if the baby ended up needing any support at delivery (i.e. oxygen support, antibiotics, or a stay in the NICU). And when seeing a family for their baby's initial visit, knowing gestational age, along with any complications during pregnancy, gives us, pediatricians, an idea of the baby's transition into the world and of the health outcomes to closely follow.

"For those born post-term (after 40+ weeks), health outcomes are standard to those born term. Some findings with post-term babies include large babies (which can make vaginal deliveries more difficult and require close monitoring of sugar levels), as well as dry flaky skin from being in a water-like environment in mom for so long. The most important thing for these children is to have regular OB exams and fetal monitoring—to make sure that they continue to receive adequate nutrition and perfusion from the placenta.

"Premature babies (especially those born before 32 weeks) can have many of their vital organs affected, as they are not fully developed. So they do require much more visits to their pediatrician and coordination with specialists. They are closely monitored for their breathing, nutrition and heat regulation. We understand that if you have a premature child, you will have many questions and concerns — and rest assure your NICU doctors and pediatrician are ready and willing to walk you through what to expect."

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    When you ask any two mamas to share their experience with breastfeeding, you are bound to get very unique answers. That's because while the act of breastfeeding is both wonderful and natural, it also comes with a learning curve for both mothers and babies.

    In some cases, breastfeeding won't be the right path for everyone. But with the right tools, resources and social support systems, we can make progress toward the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation to continue breastfeeding through the first year of a child's life. After all, breastfeeding helps nourish infants, protects them against illnesses, develops their immune systems and more. Not to mention that mothers who breastfeed experience reduced risk for breast and ovarian cancer, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

    With National Breastfeeding Awareness Month this month, it's a great time for mamas (and expectant mamas!) to gather the supplies that will support their feeding journey—whether it looks like exclusively breastfeeding, pumping or combo-feeding.

    Customflow™ Double Electric Breast Pump

    Designed for regular use, this double electric breast pump allows mamas to customize the cycle and vacuum settings that work for them. The 100% SoftShape™ silicone shields on this pump form-fit to a wide range of breast shapes and sizes—which means more comfortable, more efficient pumping. And every pump comes with two complete Dr. Brown's Options+ bottles, giving you everything you need to go from pumping to feeding.

    $159.99

    Dr. Brown’s™ Breast Milk Collection Bottles

    There's no need to cry over spilled milk—because it won't happen with these storage bottles! Make the pump-to-feeding transition simpler with Dr. Brown's Milk Collection Bottles. The bottles adapt to Dr. Brown's electric pumps to easily fill, seal and transport, and they work with Dr. Brown's bottle and nipple parts when your baby's ready to eat. (Meaning no risky pouring from one bottle to another. 🙌)

    $9.99

    Breast Milk Storage Bags

    With an extra-durable design and double zip seal, your breast milk will stay fresh and safe in the fridge or freezer until it's needed. Plus, the bags are easy to freeze flat and then store for up to six months, so your baby can continue drinking breast milk long after you are done nursing.

    $9.99

    Silicone One-Piece Breast Pump with Options+™ Bottle & Bag

    Here's something they don't tell you about breastfeeding ahead of time: While feeding your baby on one side, the other breast may "let down" milk, too. With this one-piece Silicone Breast Pump, you don't have to let those precious drops go to waste. The flexible design makes pouring the milk into a bottle stress-free.

    $14.99

    Dr. Brown’s® Manual Breast Pump

    No outlet in sight? No worries! With this powerful-yet-gentle Manual Breast Pump, you can get relief from engorgement, sneak in some quick midnight pumping or perform a full pumping session without any electricity needed. With Dr. Brown's 100% silicone SoftShape™ Shield, the hand-operated pump is as comfortable as it is easy to use. Complete with Dr. Brown's® Options+™ Anti-Colic Wide-Neck Bottle, a storage travel cap and cleaning brush, consider this the breastfeeding essential for any mama who has places to go.

    $29.99

    Options+™ Anti-Colic Baby Bottle

    With the soft silicone nipple and natural flow design of these bottles, your baby can easily switch between breast and bottle. Clinically proven to reduce colic thanks to the vent, your baby can enjoy a happy tummy after feeding sessions—without as much spit-up, burping or gas! By mimicking the flow and feel of the breast, these bottles help support your breastfeeding experience.

    $7.99

    This post is sponsored by Dr. Brown's. Thank you for supporting the brands that support Motherly and mamas.

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    7 hacks for simplifying after-school snacks

    Prepping delicious and nutritious foods shouldn't take all day.

    When you're in the middle of the school year and managing a family, each minute of time becomes very precious. Sometimes that means healthy food choices in the household can take a backseat. But don't stress it, mama. Prepping delicious and nutritious choices for the kids to munch on doesn't need to take all day.

    Remember to keep it fun, simple and interactive! Here are tips for simplifying after-school snacks once and for all:

    1. Prep snacks on Sunday

    This simple trick can make the rest of the week a breeze. Tupperware is your friend here, you can even write different days of the week on each container to give the kids a little surprise every day. I really like storage with compartments for snack prep. Personally, I slice apples, carrots or cucumbers to pair with almond butter and hummus—all great to grab and go for when you're out all day and need some fresh variety.

    2. When in doubt, go for fruit

    Fruit is always a quick and easy option. I suggest blueberries, clementine oranges, apples, frozen grapes or even unsweetened apple sauce and dried fruit, like mixed fruit. It's fun to put together a fruit salad, too. Simply cut up all the fruit options and let the kids decide how they'd like to compile. Prepped fruit is also great to have on hand for smoothies, especially when it's been sitting in the fridge for a few days—throw it in the blender with some nut milk and voila.

    3. Pair snacks with a dip

    Hummus is a great dip to keep on hand with lots of versatility or you can grab a yogurt-based dip. Easy and healthy dippers include pre-sliced veggies, baby carrots and multigrain tortilla chips. Plain hummus is a great way to introduce seasonings and spices too—shake a little turmeric, add fresh basil and you'd be surprised what your kids will take to.

    4. Have high-protein options readily available

    Snacks with high protein, like cottage cheese, Greek yogurt, hard boiled eggs and jerky will fuel kids for hours. One of my favorites is a turkey stick, which is a fun addition to the hummus platter. Just slice into bite-sized pieces. I love cottage cheese because it can go savory or sweet, use as a dip with your prepped veggies, or drizzle pure maple syrup and sprinkle with berries.

    5. Always keep the pantry stocked

    Monthly deliveries keeps the pantry updated without a trip to grocery store. Many kids are big fans of popcorn, granola and pretzels. We like to DIY our own snack packs with a little popcorn, pretzels, nuts and whatever else is in the pantry so there's always something different!

    6. Make cracker tartines

    I love the idea of replicating popular restaurant dishes for kids. Here are some of my favorite snack-sized tartines using any crisp bread, or favorite flat cracker of your choice as the base. There are no rules and kids love adding toppings and finding new combinations they love.

    • Avocado crackers: Use a cracker and then layer with thinly sliced avocado, a dollop of fresh ricotta cheese topped with roasted pepitas or sunflower seeds.
    • Tacos: The base for this is a black bean spread—just drain a can of black beans, rinse and place into a wide bowl. With a fork or potato masher, lightly smush the beans until chunky. Spread onto your cracker and top with tomato, cheddar cheese and black olives. Try out a dollop of super mild salsa or some lime zest to introduce some new flavor profiles.
    • A play on PB&J: Smear peanut butter, almond or a favorite sun butter on the cracker. I like to get a mix it up a bit and put fresh fruit (strawberries, blueberries and tiny diced apples) and a little bit of dried fruit sprinkled on top.

    7. Pre-make smoothie pops

    The easy part about meal prep is the prep itself, but knowing exactly how much to make ahead is tricky. Freeze a smoothie in popsicle molds to have a healthy treat ready-to-go snack. They're super simple to make: Add any fruit (I like apples, berries, pineapples and mangoes) and veggies (carrots, steamed beet and wilted kale) to a blender with your favorite nut milk until you have consistency just a bit thinner than a smoothie. Pour into your trusty reusable popsicle molds and then into the freezer to make an ice pop so good they could eat them for breakfast.

    Family Foodies

    15 toys that will keep your kids entertained inside *and* outside

    They transition seamlessly for indoor play.

    Keeping kids entertained is a battle for all seasons. When it's warm and sunny, the options seem endless. Get them outside and get them moving. When it's cold or rainy, it gets a little tricker.

    So with that in mind, we've rounded up some of the best toys for toddlers and kids that are not only built to last but will easily make the transition from outdoor to indoor play. Even better, many are Montessori-friendly and largely open-ended so your kids can get a ton of use out of them.

    From sunny backyard afternoons to rainy mornings stuck inside, these indoor outdoor toys are sure to keep little ones engaged and entertained.


    Stomp Racers

    As longtime fans of Stomp Rockets, we're pretty excited about their latest launch–Stomp Racers. Honestly, the thrill of sending things flying through the air never gets old. Parents and kids alike can spend hours launching these kid-powered cars which take off via a stompable pad and hose.

    $19.99

    Step2 Up and Down Rollercoaster

    Step2 Up and Down Rollercoaster

    Tiny thrill-seekers will love this kid-powered coaster which will send them (safely) sailing across the backyard or play space. The durable set comes with a high back coaster car and 10.75 feet of track, providing endless opportunities for developing gross motor skills, balance and learning to take turns. The track is made up of three separate pieces which are easy to assemble and take apart for storage (but we don't think it will be put away too often!)

    $139

    Secret Agent play set

    Plan-Toys-Secret-agent-play-set

    This set has everything your little secret agent needs to solve whatever case they might encounter: an ID badge, finger scanner, walkie-talkie handset, L-shaped scale and coloring comic (a printable file is also available for online download) along with a handy belt to carry it all along. Neighborhood watch? Watch out.

    $40

    Stepping Stones

    Stepping-stones

    Kiddos can jump, stretch, climb and balance with these non-slip stepping stones. The 20-piece set can be arranged in countless configurations to create obstacle courses, games or whatever they can dream up.

    $99.99

    Sand play set

    B. toys Wagon & Beach Playset - Wavy-Wagon Red

    For the littlest ones, it's easy to keep it simple. Take their sand box toys and use them in the bath! This 12-piece set includes a variety of scoops, molds and sifters that can all be stored in sweet little wagon.

    $17.95

    Sensory play set

    kidoozie-sand-and-splash-activity-table

    Filled with sand or water, this compact-sized activity set keeps little ones busy, quiet and happy. (A mama's ideal trifecta 😉). It's big enough to satisfy their play needs but not so big it's going to flood your floors if you bring the fun inside on a rainy day.

    $19.95

    Vintage scooter balance bike

    Janod retro scooter balance bike

    Pedals are so 2010. Balance bikes are the way to go for learning to ride a bike while skipping the training wheels stage altogether. This impossibly cool retro scooter-style is built to cruise the neighborhood or open indoor space as they're learning.

    $121

    Foam pogo stick

    Flybar-my-first-foam-pogo-stick

    Designed for ages 3 and up, My First Flybar offers kiddos who are too young for a pogo stick a frustration-free way to get their jump on. The wide foam base and stretchy bungee cord "stick" is sturdy enough to withstand indoor and outdoor use and makes a super fun addition to driveway obstacle courses and backyard races. Full disclosure—it squeaks when they bounce, but don't let that be a deterrent. One clever reviewer noted that with a pair of needle-nose pliers, you can surgically remove that sucker without damaging the base.

    $16.99

    Dumptruck 

    green-toys-dump-truck

    Whether they're digging up sand in the backyard or picking up toys inside, kids can get as creative as they want picking up and moving things around. Even better? It's made from recycled plastic milk cartons.

    $22

    Hopper ball

    Hopper ball

    Burn off all that extra energy hippity hopping across the lawn or the living room! This hopper ball is one of the top rated versions on Amazon as it's thicker and more durable than most. It also comes with a hand pump to make inflation quick and easy.

    $14.99

    Pull-along ducks

    janod-pull-along-wooden-ducks

    There's just something so fun about a classic pull-along toy and we love that they seamlessly transition between indoor and outdoor play. Crafted from solid cherry and beechwood, it's tough enough to endure outdoor spaces your toddler takes it on.

    $16.99

    Rocking chair seesaw

    Slidewhizzer-rocking-chair-seesaw

    This built-to-last rocking seesaw is a fun way to get the wiggles out in the grass or in the playroom. The sturdy design can support up to 77 pounds, so even older kiddos can get in on the action.

    $79.99

    Baby forest fox ride-on

    janod toys baby fox ride on

    Toddlers will love zooming around on this fox ride-on, and it's a great transition toy into traditional balance bikes. If you take it for a driveway adventure, simply use a damp cloth to wipe down the wheels before bringing back inside.

    $79.99

    Meadow ring toss game

    Plan Toys meadow ring toss game

    Besides offering a fantastic opportunity to hone focus, coordination, determination and taking turns, lawn games are just plain fun. Set them up close together for the littles and spread them out when Mom and Dad get in on the action. With their low profile and rope rings, they're great for indoors as well.

    $24.75

    Mini golf set

    Plan Toys mini golf set

    Fore! This mini golf set is lawn and living room ready. Set up a backyard competition or incorporate into homeschooling brain breaks that shift focus and build concentration.

    $40

    We independently select and share the products we love—and may receive a commission if you choose to buy. You've got this.

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    Even 5 hours of screen time per day is OK for school-aged kids, says new study

    Researchers found screen time contributes to stronger peer relationships and had no effect on depression and anxiety. So maybe it isn't as bad as we thought?

    MoMo Productions/Getty Images

    If you've internalized some parental guilt about your own child's screen time usage, you're not alone. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to significant amounts of screen time in children leads to an increased risk of depression and behavioral issues, poor sleep and obesity, among other outcomes. Knowing all this can mean you're swallowing a big gulp of guilt every time you unlock the iPad or turn on the TV for your kiddo.

    But is screen time really that bad? New research says maybe not. A study published in September 2021 of 12,000 9- and 10-year-olds found that even when school-aged kids spend up to 5 hours per day on screens (watching TV, texting or playing video games), it doesn't appear to be that harmful to their mental health.

    Researchers found no association between screen usage and depression or anxiety in children at this age.

    In fact, kids who had more access to screen time tended to have more friends and stronger peer relationships, most likely thanks to the social nature of video gaming, social media and texting.


    The correlations between screen time and children's health

    But those big social benefits come with a caveat. The researchers also noted that kids who used screens more frequently were in fact more likely to have attention problems, impacted sleep, poorer academic performance and were more likely to show aggressive behavior.

    Without a randomized controlled trial, it's hard to nail down these effects as being caused directly by screens. The study's authors analyzed data from a nationwide study known as the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study), the largest long-term study of brain development and children's health in the country. They relied on self-reported levels of screen time from both children and adults (it's funny to note that those reported numbers differed slightly depending on who was asked… ).

    It's important to remember that these outcomes are just correlations—not causations. "We can't say screen time causes the symptoms; instead, maybe more aggressive children are given screen devices as an attempt to distract them and calm their behavior," says Katie Paulich, lead author of the study and a PhD student in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience. Also worth noting is that a child's socioeconomic status has a 2.5-times-bigger impact on behavior than screens.

    Weighing the benefits with the risks will be up to you as the parent, who knows your child best. And because we live in a digital world, screens are here to stay, meaning parents often have little choice in the matter. It's impossible to say whether recreational screen time is fully "good" or "bad" for kids. It's maybe both.

    "When looking at the strength of the correlations, we see only very modest associations," says Paulich. "That is, any association between screen time and the various outcomes, whether good or bad, is so small it's unlikely to be important at a clinical level." It's all just part of the overall picture.

    A novel look at screen time in adolescents

    The researchers cite a lack of studies examining the relationship between screen time and health outcomes in this specific early-adolescence age group, which is one of the reasons why this study is so groundbreaking. The findings don't apply to younger children—or older adolescents, who may be starting to go through puberty.

    Screen time guidelines do exist for toddlers up to older kids, but up to 1.5 hours per day seems unattainable for many young adolescents, who often have their own smartphones and laptops, or at least regular access to one.

    Of course, more research is needed, but that's where this study can be helpful. The ABCD study will follow the 12,000 participants for another 10 years, following up with annual check-ins. It'll be interesting to see how the findings change over time: Will depression and anxiety as a result of screen time be more prevalent as kids age? We'll have to wait and see.

    The bottom line? Parents should still be the gatekeepers of their child's screen time in terms of access and age-appropriateness, but, "our early research suggests lengthy time on screen is not likely to yield dire consequences," says Paulich.

    Children's health

    Mom and gorilla bond over their babies at the zoo: ‘It was so beautiful’

    The new mothers shared a special moment at a Boston zoo.

    Franklin Park Zoo/YouTube

    Motherhood knows no bounds.

    When Kiki the gorilla spotted a new mom and baby visiting her habitat at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston, she immediately took a liking to the pair. Emmelina Austin held her five-week-old son Canyon to the glass so Kiki could get a better look.

    The gorilla spent nearly five minutes happily pointing and staring at baby Canyon.


    Emmelina's husband captured the sweet moment on his phone, in a video that's now gone viral.

    Mother shares unique maternal bond with gorilla (FULL VIDEO) www.youtube.com

    Why was Kiki so interested in her tiny visitor? Possibly because Kiki's a new mom herself. Her fifth baby, Pablo, was born in October.

    Near the end of the video, Kiki scooped up Pablo and held him close. The new moms held their baby boys to the glass and shared a special moment together: just a couple of mothers, showing off their little ones.

    "When I walked into the zoo that day, I never could've imagined that we would have had that experience," Austin told ABC News. "It was so beautiful, and we walked out just over the moon."

    We can't get enough of the sweet exchange. There's something special about sharing your little one with the world. Mothers of all ages, races–and it turns out, species–understand.

    Our favorite viral mama + kid videos